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Longevity Daily: 15th August, 2020

Posted on 15 August 2020

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Everyday our team of researchers in Oxford are inundated with scientific, and medical research articles that have the potential to improve health, wellbeing, and longevity. In this blog we highlight a few of them that caught our attention today.

DNA is responsible for long term storage of the genetic code. RNA, on the other hand, is responsible for several important processes including transporting the genetic information found in DNA to other sites in the cell where it can be used to make proteins. Image source: By Gabi Slizewska
  1. According to Cancer Research UK, and the American Cancer Society one in two people will develop cancer at some point in their lives. Indeed cancer is one the most devastating diseases of aging. If we could detect cancer early we may be able to treat it effectively, and significantly reduce the mortality rate.
    • In a recently published a meta-analysis (statistical comparison of lots of studies) researchers from China, and Iran try to understand whether the circular RNA, CDR1as/ciRS-7 could be used as a biomarker for early cancer detection.
    • Circular RNA, CDR1as/ciRS-7 is known to function as a vital regulator in various cancers, but until this study we didn’t know whether it could be used to detect cancer, and predict patient outcome.
    • After surveying a total or 26 studies, which included a total of 3,365 patients, the researchers report that over expression of Circular RNA, CDR1as/ciRS-7 was correlated with worse types of cancer.
    • In addition, the researchers also found that patients that had the worse mortality from cancer also had high levels of Circular RNA, CDR1as/ciRS-7 expression.
    • Finally, the researchers suggest that Circular RNA, CDR1as/ciRS-7 could be a reliable biomarker for detecting cancers, and predicting the outcome for patients with cancer.

  2. We now understand that the process of biological degradation over time is caused by the 9 hallmarks of aging. Senescence is one of the key hallmarks of aging. Senescent cells linger in our body way past their expiry date, and harm their neighbouring cells. In addition, senescent cells are associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a combination of risk factors that results in cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes.
    • In a recently published study researchers from the US, and China try to find out what goes awry during metabolic syndrome, and its relationship with senescent cells.
    • The researchers found that both humans and pig with metabolic syndrome had obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance. They also saw 68 genes that were being regulated by microRNAs that were associated with senescence.
    • When the researchers harvested the vesicles being secreted from the fat cells of pigs and humans, and inserted them into a healthy pig, or a human cell, they saw that this caused significant amount of senescence .
    • The researchers concluded that metabolic syndrome increases the amount of microRNAs that cause senescence, and these are packaged in vesicles and released by the cells.

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