Although more common in males, age-related hair loss can happen to anyone. While primarily cosmetic, hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life.
Age-related hair loss usually appears as a gradual thinning. In men this usually begins on the forehead, causing the hairline to recede, while in women it is more common for hair loss to be diffuse, and is usually first noticed as a broadening of the central parting of the hair. Some people can also lose hair in circular or patchy bald spots.
Individual hair follicles have a ‘life cycle’ which ends with the hair falling out, following which a new hair will begin to grow after a short delay. With age, the growth phase of this cycle becomes shorter and the delay becomes longer, meaning that fewer follicles have hair at any one time.also grow smaller (resulting in new hairs being thinner), and follicular cells begin to die, meaning that new hairs cannot be grown. These changes are accompanied by a reduced blood supply.
We still don’t have a full understanding of what causes these changes. While many forms of hair loss exist with varying causes, hormones called androgens seem to play a central role in driving age-related hair loss. Of particular importance is the hormone loss of aromatase, an enzyme produced by and that can convert androgens to (which increase the time spent in the growing phase).(DHT), which is formed from testosterone in the hair follicle by the action of an enzyme called 5 alpha reductase. DHT appears to be more important in male hair loss, as efforts to block its production in females show inconsistent results. In females, hair loss may also be caused by a
Those with a family history of hair loss are more likely to experience hair loss themselves. Stress can also disrupt theand accelerate age-related hair loss.
While genetic factors play a significant role in the likelihood of experiencing hair loss, lifestyle factors are also likely to contribute. Studies have found a link between hair loss and metabolic factors including , , high total , high and decreased .
Pharmacological treatments for hair loss are mostly aimed at suppressing vitamin E can regrow lost hair. However, these treatments don’t restore lost . One approach that could be used to restore is stem cell therapy: that is to say, harvesting folliclular from the scalp, cloning them, and re implanting them to regenerate lost hair.production and lengthening the growth phase of the cycle. Finasteride suppresses DHT production by inhibiting 5 alpha reductase, while minoxidil probably works by increasing blood flow to hair follicles. There is also evidence that some supplements like
Psychological Effect, Pathophysiology, and Management of Androgenetic Alopecia in Men: https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)61759-X/pdf#:~:text=A%20progressive%20condition%2C%20male%20pattern,used%20to%20manage%20male%20pattern
Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review :doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20153370
Different levels of 5alpha-reductase type I and II, aromatase, and androgen receptor in hair follicles of women and men with androgenetic alopecia: DOI: 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12335779
Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia. Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group: doi: 10.1016/s0190-9622(98)70007-6.
Effective treatment of female androgenic alopecia with dutasteride: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16167423/
The Association between Metabolic Syndrome Components and Hair Loss both Male and Female Individual: https://www.longdom.org/open-access/the-association-between-metabolic-syndrome-components-and-hair-loss-both-male-and-female-individuals-2167-0951.1000110.pdf
Effects of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in human volunteers: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24575202/
Stem cells from human hair follicles: first mechanical isolation for immediate autologous clinical use in androgenetic alopecia and hair loss: doi: 10.21037/sci.2017.06.04